Friday, November 29, 2019
Objective The objective of the project is to build a truss that would be able to take a specific amount of downward force remarkably with respect to the weight of the truss itself, i. e. to construct a truss that would hold a relatively high efficiency score. And construct the bridge in such a way to as to keep the deflection of the structure at minimal. Introduction First of all, what is a truss? In an engineering view, a truss is a structure that is made up of series of triangular unit made of straight members that are connected at junctions known as nodes. External forces created by bodies known as loads, are often placed on areas of the structures which then creates internal forces in the members in form of either a Tensile Force or a Compressive Force. The practical analysis was carried out to help better our understanding on the theories behind the behaviour of a truss under different circumstances. We will write a custom essay sample on Truss Bridge Report or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Analysis A Pratt truss illustrating the arrangement of the bars By calculation The length of the horizontal member is 99. 4m The height of the bridge is 20m. And the diagonal members are all 23. m The distance between the two sides (floor Beam) was 16m. Materials Today, bridges can be of the span, arch, or suspension type. Materials used throughout history include wood, masonry, cast iron, wrought iron, concrete, steel, reinforced concrete, alloy and silicon steel, pre-stressed concrete, carbon fibre, and aluminium. But since the experiment was to be performed in a small scale, Popsicle sticks where chosen to do the job. Then a non-toxic adhesive was chosen to be used to join the members at the node. A clamp of some sort is a good idea when constructing. Clamps are important because most of the popsicle stick arent flat, so if you dont clamp them when you glue them together your bridge probably wont hold together very well. Procedure The bridge truss was constructed using about 140 sticks, give or take a few. We began the construction by creating the smaller pieces that would be easier to glue together, clamped the pieces together, and then left them dry for over a period of 7 days, which made them strong enough to be used. We started with each side of the bridge, in order to keep them symmetrical, then flipped each side and added more members to strengthen the sides. We then erected the constructed sides and added angled supports across the horizontal member at the bottom, and then added some centre support to hold the structure firmly and give it its shape. We then added some horizontal members to connect the sides together and minimize the deflection of the structure. And we levelled the structure with a horizontal surface after gluing any major part to give it a stable composition. Then after the assembly process was complete. We then gave the bridge structure as a whole, time do dry so the glue would dry and give the joined members and nodes time to dry. Then it was on to the testing Testing For the testing procedure, the bridge was placed between two horizontal surfaces at a height that was enough to place weights to the lower horizontal members. And then weights were added simultaneously to the center of the lower horizontal members on both sides so as to balance the weight distribution across the bridge and keep it at equilibrium throughout the test. Then weights in newton were added continuously to the members until the structure began to show signs of major deformation that could destroy the bridge structur. Then the maximum weight it could take was noted down by the supervisor in charge of the testing procedure so that the grades would be allotted accordingly. Discussion As mentioned earlier a truss is a structure that is made up of one or more triangles connected at joints referred to as nodes. For the experiment we chose to use a type of truss known as a Pratt Truss. We chose this type of truss because of its history. It has been in use since the practice of using of wood for the construction of bridges was brought into play, and still when wood gave way to iron, and remained when iron gave way to steel. The vertical members in this type of truss are under compression, while the horizontal members respond to tension. It is unique because the long diagonal bars are only in tension for gravity load effect, which allows the members to be used more efficiently, so that slenderness effects related to buckling due to compression loads will not control the design. The prat truss which was patented in 1844 was patented by Caleb Pratt and his son Thomas Willis Pratt. Conclusion To sum it all up, according to the analysis of the truss, the theory was confirmed that the Pratt truss is one of the best trusses for withstanding vertical loadings, because of the geometry of the members.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Workplace Privacy Privacy is something everyone should have the right to. In fact, the First and Fourth Amendment protects this right. As defined by The American HeritageÃ ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, privacy is the quality or condition of being secluded from the presence or view of others. A major issue evolving in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s workplace is the invasion of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ privacy by the employer. Ã¢â¬Å"Everyone has a right to privacy at home, but this right does not include the workplaceÃ¢â¬ (Lokie, 2002, para 3). Many employers have started monitoring the actions occurring by the employees of their company while at work. The main form of monitoring being used today is electronic monitoring. There are three forms of electric monitoring being used by employers; computer-based, telephone, and video surveillance. Other forms of monitoring include genetic, psychological, and drug testing. The following discusses all forms of monitoring as well as what can and ca nnot be done when dealing with workplace privacy. Electric Monitoring Since the Ã¢â¬Ë80s, electronic monitoring is rapidly becoming popular in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s workplace. Ã¢â¬Å"According to a survey by the American Management Association, 78% of major U.S. firms reported active surveillance of employee activities during the year 2000Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"More Companies,Ã¢â¬ 2001). Technological advances are key reasons for the uprising in electronic monitoring. Monitoring telephone conversations has become more advanced. Employers can also purchase software that can monitor employee E-mail use, web sites visited, and what computer files the employee has accessed. Video surveillance is also becoming more and more hi-tech. Cameras are so small and easy to install that they may be hidden anywhere and in anything. Electronic monitoring of employees actions may be used in nearly all companies today. Telephone monitoring. Telephone monitoring is one of the most common forms ... Free Essays on Workplace Privacy Free Essays on Workplace Privacy Workplace Privacy Privacy is something everyone should have the right to. In fact, the First and Fourth Amendment protects this right. As defined by The American HeritageÃ ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, privacy is the quality or condition of being secluded from the presence or view of others. A major issue evolving in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s workplace is the invasion of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ privacy by the employer. Ã¢â¬Å"Everyone has a right to privacy at home, but this right does not include the workplaceÃ¢â¬ (Lokie, 2002, para 3). Many employers have started monitoring the actions occurring by the employees of their company while at work. The main form of monitoring being used today is electronic monitoring. There are three forms of electric monitoring being used by employers; computer-based, telephone, and video surveillance. Other forms of monitoring include genetic, psychological, and drug testing. The following discusses all forms of monitoring as well as what can and c annot be done when dealing with workplace privacy. Electric Monitoring Since the Ã¢â¬Ë80s, electronic monitoring is rapidly becoming popular in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s workplace. Ã¢â¬Å"According to a survey by the American Management Association, 78% of major U.S. firms reported active surveillance of employee activities during the year 2000Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"More Companies,Ã¢â¬ 2001). Technological advances are key reasons for the uprising in electronic monitoring. Monitoring telephone conversations has become more advanced. Employers can also purchase software that can monitor employee E-mail use, web sites visited, and what computer files the employee has accessed. Video surveillance is also becoming more and more hi-tech. Cameras are so small and easy to install that they may be hidden anywhere and in anything. Electronic monitoring of employees actions may be used in nearly all companies today. Telephone monitoring. Telephone monitoring is one of the most common forms ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
What is the relationship between taste and class - Essay Example And if class does determine taste, to what extent does it determine taste? One of the major texts that tries to explore the relationship of class and taste is the article by Jane Steinhauer entitled Ã¢â¬Å"When the Joneses wear Jeans.Ã¢â¬ According to Steinhauer, unlike in earlier times, social class Ã¢â¬Å"has become harder to see in the things that Americans buyÃ¢â¬ (2005). This is because of the fact that prices have become more flat, and credit spending has become so popular, that even ordinary Americans can now actually buy high end products, that were before only exclusive to upper class Americans (Steinhauer 2005). In this case, it may be seen that the tastes of a certain individual does not necessarily reflect his or her social class, due to the fact that even ordinary citizens of America can now have the option to buy products that are commonly associated with the upper classes. In this case, then, does it negate the fact that class determines taste? However, Steinhauer does not easily agree. This is because of the fact that she still conced es that Ã¢â¬Å"status symbols have not disappearedÃ¢â¬ and that Ã¢â¬Å"the marketplace have simply gone one better, rolling out ever pricier goods and pitching them to ever loftier richÃ¢â¬ (Steinhauer 2005). In this case, the presence of multimillion dollar luxury cars and thousand dollar-jewelries are still luxuries of the upper classes, and are still exclusive to them. In this case, Steinhauer further argues that even though the market has been able to expertly design and package high end goods to the middle classes in the purpose of expanding oneÃ¢â¬â¢s market, the vertical desire of middle class people to indulge in upper class indulgences have become more Ã¢â¬Å"unrealistic,Ã¢â¬ due to the fact that America is know facing a Ã¢â¬Å"widening income gap between themselves and the richÃ¢â¬ (Steinhauer 2005). In this case, she concludes that the true measure of upper class is the Ã¢â¬Å"personal services
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
VARK Learning Styles - Essay Example From this discussion it is clear thatÃ in reference to the VARK scores of the group, it is clear that my ideal and favorite learning techniques include visual and kinesthetic. In the visual assessment, I scored 25% as compared to the group/class score of9%.my kinetic score was 25% as compared to the class score of 21%. The group on the other hand did well on audio and reading techniques. The group/class score in audio assessment was 46% as compared to my 31% score. In audio assessment, the groups cored 24% while I scored 19%. These score differences can be explained through FlemingÃ¢â¬â¢s findings.Ã According to the reportÃ individuals who perform well in the visual assessment are known to prefer assessments or evaluations that include diagram, grids, tables, and pamphlets. Individuals who perform well in Kinesthetic have been observed to prefer assessments that include illustrations, models, laboratory tests, academic expeditions, like to experiment on new things, prefer inc orporation of their own logic and intelligence in learning.Ã FlemingÃ¢â¬â¢s findings showed that individuals who perform when presented with debates, arguments, tutorials, harangues, and dialogues.Ã These are characteristic of group techniques of erudition. Those individuals who perform well in reading and writing assessments fancy using references in-print, thesis, and instruction booklets, and prefer doing research through the internet.Ã ... In the visual assessment, I scored 25% as compared to the group/class score of9%.my kinetic score was 25% as compared to the class score of 21%. The group on the other hand did well on audio and reading techniques. The group/class score in audio assessment was 46% as compared to my 31% score. In audio assessment, the groups cored 24% while I scored 19%. These score differences can be explained through FlemingÃ¢â¬â¢s findings. Individuals who perform well in the visual assessment are known to prefer assessments or evaluations that include diagram, grids, tables, and pamphlets. Individuals who perform well in Kinesthetic have been observed to prefer assessments that include illustrations, models, laboratory tests, academic expeditions, like to experiment on new things, prefer incorporation of their own logic and intelligence in learning. This explains why I did well in visual and kinesthetic. Results from FlemingÃ¢â¬â¢s study showed that individuals who perform when presented with debates, arguments, tutorials, harangues, and dialogues (Fleming and Bauma, 2006). These are characteristic of group techniques of erudition. Those individuals who perform well in reading and writing assessments fancy using references in-print, thesis, and instruction booklets, and prefer doing research through the internet. These techniques are easily and effectively accomplished as a group and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why the group performed well. Advantages and disadvantages of the different learning styles The main advantage of visual erudition is the fact that an individual is able to follow and grasp issues promptly. The disadvantage of this technique of learning is that some features and aspects of a certain topic
Monday, November 18, 2019
Green Mountain Coffee Roasters Fair Trade Coffee - Essay Example Since Green Mountain Coffee Roasters is also known for investing in small coffee enterprises, their target market is therefore the main focusing on the business owner who like to entertain their consumers by providing them with the best brewed coffee so that they can understand the quality of their consumer satisfaction and hence go ahead in having business transactions with them. Even, for the employees it is very refreshing to have coffee with a good brew. Apart from the business owners, when we look towards the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, it is essentially meant for the families who like to have occasional get together and plan to drink coffee during those quality moments (Rudarakanchana, 2013). The young professionals who have the aspiration to start up with their own enterprises and be professional with their approach is also a target customer for them. Based on the target market, GMCR should also look forward to tapping the regions where there do not have their presence li ke the developing nations such as India and China. The demographic profile of the normal Green Mountain coffee consumer is not promptly accessible by means of market asset information; then again, a few industry patterns may be relevant to the GMCR target consumer. It is accepted that the target consumer is Caucasian and in their initial 20s and/or mid 40s. This consumer drinks a normal of 2-4 containers of coffee every day, which is a perfect focus for a solitary mug blending framework. Coffee inclination has a tendency to change by salary, with higher wage consumers inclining toward premium coffee products. Higher wages are additionally connected to a higher ability to pay for more manageable product characteristics. Considering this, GMCR offers a few lines of natural and reasonable exchange K-Cups and entire bean/ground coffee choices and more maintainable bundling alternatives. GMCR
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Analysing An Experience To Develop Current Knowledge Nursing Essay Reflection In this reflective account I will relate to a significant event, demonstrating how I have developed personally and professionally, focusing on the implementation of care and support. Rodgers (2002) suggests from Dewey (1933) that reflection is the process of reconstruction and reorganisation of experience which adds to the meaning of experience. Therefore analysing an experience, to develop your current knowledge, by reviewing your actions and assessing the experience to develop your own personal and professional skills in future practice. Hamill (1999) recommends writing reflection in first person using Driscolls model of reflection (Driscoll 2000). The situation I have chosen to reflect on is an interaction with a patient who had been given a terminal diagnosis and had been informed the prognosis was limited. I have chosen to reflect on this account as it involved difficult communication which made me question my competency as a student and prior to the event I thought I would not be prepared to deal with it. (See Appendix) As I had previously interacted with the patient on her admission, I have already communicated and developed a relationship with her. Groogan (1999) states that communication creates a relationship, with communication providing a holistic approach to caring for the individual to meet their psychological, social, spiritual and physical needs. I was therefore able to recognise that something was wrong and identified that she wanted somebody to talk to. Forrest (1989) identified core elements of nursing as picking up on cues and the importance of being there. Jarrett and Payne (1995) reviewed literature on nurse-patient communication and concluded that there is a need for nurses to make an assessment of each individual situation, so that they are aware of whether the patient desires the information. Relating to the assessment I made of the situation I was aware the patient wanted to talk and realised that she was not asking for information but wanted someone to talk to. During the event I felt anxious and nervous about how to react and communicate with the patient as I had never been in that situation before. Buckman (1998) identified health care professionals experience fear of the untaught and fear of saying I dont know, the experience of showing emotions was also identified and throughout the situation I felt empathy towards her. Empathy is defined as the mental capacity to appreciate another persons feeling without joining them, understanding patients experiences. (Hojat et al 2001). Sieh et al (1994) states that special emphasis is placed on listening and empathy skills in the training of nurses. However, in the situation I questioned my competencies within my communication skills as I thought I was unequipped within my training to provide the care and support the patient required. On reflection, I identified that I worked within my role and limitations as a student to assess the situation and act as appropriate. Reflecting on the situation I have identified that non-verbal communication played a large part of the experience. Non-verbal communication includes the use of eye contact, flexibility of facial expressions, the use of gestures, use of touch, pausing to allow a response timing and body posture (Purnell 2000). This definition relates to the situation as I was sat at her bedside when she began to cry, and then she said to me I am dying arent I? She put her hand out and I just comforted her by holding her hand. The expression and discussion of feelings of loss and grief can be very difficult for patients with incurable disease and their families (Clements- Cortes 2004) When she asked me the question I am dying arent I? my first thoughts were to ask a Staff Nurse to come and speak to her, but I felt as if she had chosen me to talk to and that I couldnt have walked away to get someone. Although I didnt answer her question, I felt as though I was supporting her by being with her and as I knew she understood her prognosis and felt that the question didnt need an answer. On reflection, the event directly impacted on the patient, me and my role as a student and my mentor. I feel that the patient was able to express her feeling and emotions and I was able to provide care and support within my role. I identified that I assessed the situation and made decisions to provide the best possible care and support for the patient at the time. The situation made me question my ability however it developed my communication skills which are transferable to all aspects of nursing. To enable me to reflect on the situation I used literature as part of the reflective process to read around communicating in palliative care, the nurse-patient relationship to continuing development and promote learning as Glaze (2001) reports the use of literature is used as part of reflection to promote learning by reading around the topic. Following the event, I informed my mentor what had happened and she said she was aware of the situation and felt that I had dealt with it very well. We reflected on the event and I felt as though at the time somebody could have came to make sure the situation was ok but following the discussion my mentor was aware of the situation and that she would have intervened if necessary. Following the discussion I felt supported by my mentor, although the event was emotional and sensitive I feel it was a positive learning experience. Benner (1984) describes stages of practice from novice to expert, at this stage in my training, I am working towards an advanced beginner, although I recognise this in this situation I had no experience of communicating in difficult situations and for that reason I felt like a novice. For this reason I feel as though my mentor could have identified my weakness in this area and at the time and acted sooner. The role of the mentor is to assess and support the student in practice (NMC 2008) on this occasion I felt my mentor fulfilled their role after the discussion following the event, however during the event I felt it was just me and the patient, and I acted within my role. In conclusion, I have recognised the importance of the nurse-patient relationship and feel the experience at the time and reflecting on the experience has had a positive impact on my personal and professional development. Understanding that within the role of a nurse, communication is not only about information provision but about adapting your own skill to assess situations and act appropriately. In relation to implementation of care and support this experience highlights the nurse role to provide emotional support to continue to communicate effectively.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The Life Support of the Forestry Regime: Case Studies of Two Transnational NGOs Introduction As relatively new actors in international relations, nongovernmental organizations or NGOs are becoming a vital component for successful environmental regimes. NGOs organize transnational advocacy networks that link state actors, businesses, and other organizations. The forestry regime is relatively weak as compared to other environmental regimes because of a lack of international agreements and state policies regarding forest conservation. NGOs have attempted to fill this state actor void and are beginning to shape the quality of the regime by establishing principles to guide state behavior. NGOs have developed conservation and management strategies, financed reforestation projects, and fostered business partnerships. This essay compares the strategies of the World Wide Fund for Nature (referred to as the World Wildlife Fund-WWF in English speaking countries) and Rainforest Alliance, two international NGOs that are involved with forestry projects in developing countries. The c omparison indicates that both increase public awareness through different strategies. The WWF defines overarching goals and finances broad programs and the Rainforest Alliance focuses on industry through certification programs. Though both NGOs have not significantly changed international policy, they have been successful in creating a civil society to support the regime. If NGOs continue to change the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s values and increase their involvement with local communities, they will become an even greater source of strength within the forestry regime. Where have our global forests gone? Deforestation is a significant threat to the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s biodiver... ...Asia-Pacific: Corporations and Environmental Management. New York: Cambridge University Press. 202pp. Rainforest Alliance- Innovative Solutions for Global Conservation. Online. The Rainforest Alliance. Available: www.rainforest-alliance.org updated 2004 [accessed 4/5/04]. Shapiro, C. 2003. Indonesian Wood Certified as Legally Cut Arrives in Norfolk, Va. Port. Virginian-Pilot. Aug. 6, 2003. Wapner, P. 2004. Politics Beyond the State: Environmental Activism and World Civic Politics. In Green Planet Blues, edited by K. Conca and G.D. Dabelko, (pp. 122-139). Boulder, CO.: Westview Press. Wilson, B., Van Kooten, G.C., Vertinsky, I., Arthur L. 1999. Forest Policy: International Case Studies. New York: CABI Publishing. 273pp. WWF Forests for Life Programme. Online. The World Wide Fund for Nature. Available: www.panda.org updated 2004 [accessed 4/5/04].